In females, the uterus is surrounded by 3 layers endometrium, myometrium, and serosa. Endometriosis is a gynecological condition in which tissue that presents in the endometrium region of the uterus grows outside the uterus (pelvic region). Tissue mainly grows in ovaries, fallopian tubes, and intestines. Generally, this tissue doesn’t spread beyond your pelvic region, but in some cases, it happens. Endometrial tissue growing other than the uterus region is called an endometrial implant.
During the mensuration cycle, the endometrium wall or tissue gets thickened, breakdown and remove with blood through the vagina. That endometrial tissue that grows outside the uterus in endometriosis disorder also acts the same but this tissue does not have any path to exit your body, it gets trapped.
Endometriosis leads to unbearable pain and it becomes severe during mensuration. It also causes fertility problems. Endometriosis can’t be completely cured, you can control symptoms with proper doctor guidance.
Endometrial tissue which gets trapped in your pelvis cause
- Severe pain during mensuration
- Abdominal pain
- scar formation
- Fertility problems
Endometriosis shows different symptoms in different people. Some people experience mild symptoms, but others can have moderate to severe symptoms. The severity of your pain does not indicate the degree or stage of the condition. In some cases, people do not even know they have endometriosis, some get mild symptoms while some experience moderate to severe symptoms. By symptoms, you cannot judge the condition of endometriosis. Some common symptoms are-
- Pain in the pelvic regionPainful period- endometriosis leads to dysmenorrhoea. You will get unbearable pain during mensuration.
- Abdominal pain.
- Painful intercourse- Painful sex is the other common symptoms
- Excessive bleeding during periods
- Discomfort with bowel movement
Other symptoms are fatigue, diarrhea, constipation, bloating, or nausea.
Regular gynecologist checkup is important in case of endometriosis. The doctor will provide you best treatment and help in controlling the symptoms.
In endometriosis people, the chances of Ovarian cancer are very high as compared to the normal one. In rare cases, endometriosis leads to another type of cancer endometriosis-associated adenocarcinoma.
Before reaching any conclusions first examine yourself. Most people get confused between Endometriosis and pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) or ovarian cysts. Most of their symptoms are similar.
There is no exact cause of endometriosis but some factors which possibly cause endometriosis are
- Endometriosis may occur due to retrograde menstruation. It is a biological disorder in which menstrual blood flows back into the pelvic cavity through fallopian tubes instead of removing out from the body.
- Hormonal reasons- Some hormones convert the normal cell which is present outside the uterus into endometrial cells.
- Transformation of peritoneal cells- In some cases, a small region of the abdomen gets converted into endometrial tissue. The cause is unknown.
- Surgery- In some surgery, such as a hysterectomy or C-section, endometrial cells may attach to a surgical incision and lead to endometriosis
- Immune system disorder- Improper functioning of the immune system also causes endometriosis. The immune system is unable to differentiate between endometrial tissue and endometrial-like tissue. So it can’t get destroyed.
- According to some experts, endometriosis might get started in the fetal period due to misplaced cell tissue that begins to respond to the hormones of puberty.
- Genetics as well as some environmental factors also cause endometriosis.
- Exercise regularly
- Avoid large amounts of alcohol
- Avoid large amounts of drinks with caffeine.
- Adopt a healthy lifestyle
- Avoid fast food
Endometriosis has no permanent cure, you can only control or manage the symptoms
Medical, surgical, as well as some hormone methods, help to control your symptoms.
- Hormone therapy
- Hormonal contraceptives
- Pain medication
- Conservative surgery
- Fertility treatment
- Hysterectomy with removal of the ovaries
- Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists and antagonists