Lupus is an autoimmune disease in which your body’s immune system attacks your own cells, tissue, and organ. During this condition, your immune system becomes extra active and starts attacking healthy tissue. Lupus affects healthy tissue, organs irrespective of their position. It will cause inflammation in joints, skin, kidneys, heart, lungs, blood vessels, brain, and many others. Due to this, lupus is sometimes called a disease having a thousand faces.
It takes months or years for a doctor to treat lupus. It can’t diagnose easily because it doesn’t have specific signs and symptoms The most distinctive sign of lupus is rashes on the face but it is not always lupus.
Types of Lupus
There are different types of lupus:
- Systemic lupus erythematodus(SLE)
- Discoid lupus
- Subacute cutaneous lupus
- Drug induced lupus
- Neonatal lupus
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
It is the most common type of lupus. This lupus affects multiple parts of the body at the same time. Therefore, it is considered the most severe form of lupus.
This lupus affects only the skin. It causes circular lesions mostly on the face or in hair scalps. It causes a red rash in the affected area and lesions to become thick and scaly.
Subacute cutaneous Lupus
It causes lesions after being exposed in sun. Form sores to the part which comes under the sun.
Drug-induced lupus is caused by certain medicines such as hydralazine. It is less severe than SLE. DIL usually goes away after stopping the drug or within 6 months of stopping the medication.
Drugs such as hydralazine, procainamide induce DIL.
Neonatal lupus is lupus that occurs in infants. It is rare and affects newly born children. It happens because of the transmission of certain antibodies from the mother during pregnancy.
Symptoms of Lupus
Every individual shows different symptoms of lupus. The symptoms of lupus which will you get depend on which body system lupus attack. Some general symptoms are:-
- Rashes on skin
- High fever
- Pain in joints
- Hair loss
- Pain in chest
- Malar Rash
- Spots on skin after sun exposure.
- When Fingers and toes exposed to cold they become white or blue
- Shortness of breath
Lupus is an autoimmune disease, therefore the exact cause of lupus is unknown. When your immune system starts attacking healthy tissue it causes lupus. Lupus arises due to genetics or sometimes environmental conditions also considered a major cause for lupus.
- Medications- some drug such as hydralazine, procainamid, anti-seizure medications and antibiotics induce DIL. It is less severe than SLE. DIL usually goes away after stopping the durg or within 6 months of stopping the medication.
- Sunlight. Exposure to the sun for long time also trigge lupus. It cause Subacute cutaneous lupus. It cause lesions after being exposed in sun. Form sores to the part which come under sun.
- Infections. Having an infection also can cause lupus.
When to consult a doctor
If you get rashes, swelling around lips, fever, and fatigue without any valid reason, Consult your doctor.
Complications that arise due to lupus are:-
- Kidneys. Lupus can cause kidney disease. It damage your kidney and cause kidney failure which is one of the leading causes of death in people having lupus.
- Central nervous system. Lupus affect your brain and nervous system also. It cause headaches, dizziness, mood changes, difficulty in vision and strokes or seizures.
- Blood vessels. It cause inflammation of the blood vessels which alter in blood circulation.
- Lungs. Some people face inflammation in the lining of the lungs, called as pleurisy. It causes chest pain whenever people take deep breath.
- Heart. It can cause inflammation of cardiac muscle, damage arteries or cardiac membrane. Increase the risk of cardiovascular disease such as anginal pectoris.