Pneumonia is a lung infection that causes the air sacs or alveoli in the lungs to fill up with fluid or pus. When the fluid gets filled in alveoli it decreases the elasticity of alveoli and also reduces the area for gas exchange. This leads to difficulty in breathing and cough with pus, fever, chills. Pneumonia can be caused by organisms such as bacteria, viruses, and fungi. From mild to severe, pneumonia depends on the type of organism causing the infection.

Kids, Infants, young children, and old age with health problems or weakened immune systems are more vulnerable to pneumonia.

Who is at risk for pneumonia?

Kids, Infants, young children, and old age with health problems or weakened immune systems are more vulnerable to pneumonia. 

  • Kids and old age people
  • Some chemicals and pollutants,
  • Excessive smoking and alcohol consumption.
  • Having another lung disease 
  • Weakened immune system


The symptoms of pneumonia vary from person to person. Some common symptoms are:

  • Chill
  • Fever
  • Excessive sweating
  • Difficulty in breathing 
  • Cough with phlegm
  • Chest pain 
  • Nausea

The symptoms from person to person. Infants and kids may not show any signs at an early stage of infection. Old age people and people who are not healthy and have weak immune systems can experience symptoms.


Pneumonia can cause serious complications 

  • Kidney failure
  • Breathing problems 
  • Respiratory failure
  • Lung abscesses, a cavity in lungs get filled by pus.
  • Pleural disorder 


There are many causes of pneumonia. But the most common is the infection caused by bacteria and viruses. This Bacteria and viruses are present in the air and enter the body through the nose or mouth. Once it gets entered into the human body, the body detects it as an antigen and immediately activates the body’s immune system, and prevents these germs from infecting your lungs. In some people, kids, infants these germs defeat the immune system of the body and cause pneumonia. 

Classification of pneumonia 

Pneumonia is classified into different categories on the basis of organisms that cause pneumonia and from where infection gets spread.

On basis of microorganisms:-

It may be caused by:

  • Bacterial pneumonia- It is the most common type of pneumonia. In this, infection is caused by bacteria. This occurs when bacteria enter your body from the air and reach to lungs. It can also be caused after you got a cold or the flu.
  • Mycoplasma pneumonia. Mycoplasma pneumonia is the weakest type of pneumonia which doesn’t require any hospitalisation. It is caused by mycoplasma
  • Fungal pneumonia. It is caused by fungi. It is very common in people having chronic health problems.
  • Viruses, including COVID-19. Viruses such as rhinovirus which cause common colds and the flu lead to pneumonia. In small children, virus is the most common cause of pneumonia Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) may cause pneumonia, which can become severe.

On basis of place:-

  1. Community-acquired pneumonia
  2. Hospital-acquired pneumonia
  3. Health care-acquired pneumonia
  4. Aspiration pneumonia


There are some steps to prevent pneumonia from spreading:-

  1. Keep good hygiene
  2. Keep your immunity healthy 
  3. Get vaccinated
  4. Don’t smoke
  5. Get sufficient rest
  6. Avoid contact from sick people
  7. Practice a healthy lifestyle.


The vaccine is the first priority for treating pneumonia. Make sure all your children get vaccinated. In case of bacterial pneumonia, your doctor will suggest you some antibiotics to treat pneumonia. Consult your doctor and follow the medications carefully.

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